World Alliance for
|Women's Health | Beijing Platform For Actions: Strategic Objectives and Actions on Health and Violence against Women|
|This document:||pdf |||printable version|
C. Women and health
Women have the right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. The enjoyment of this right is vital to their
life and well-being and their ability to participate in all areas of public and private life. Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social
well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Women's health involves their emotional, social and physical well-being and is determined
by the social, political and economic context of their lives, as well as by biology. However, health and well-being elude the majority of women. A major
barrier for women to the achievement of the highest attainable standard of health is inequality, both between men and women and among women in
different geographical regions, social classes and indigenous and ethnic groups. In national and international forums, women have emphasized that to
attain optimal health throughout the life cycle, equality, including the sharing of family responsibilities, development and peace are necessary conditions.
Women have different and unequal access to and use of basic health resources, including primary health services for the prevention and treatment of
childhood diseases, malnutrition, anaemia, diarrhoeal diseases, communicable diseases, malaria and other tropical diseases and tuberculosis, among
others. Women also have different and unequal opportunities for the protection, promotion and maintenance of their health. In many developing
countries, the lack of emergency obstetric services is also of particular concern. Health policies and programmes often perpetuate gender stereotypes
and fail to consider socio- economic disparities and other differences among women and may not fully take account of the lack of autonomy of women
regarding their health. Women's health is also affected by gender bias in the health system and by the provision of inadequate and inappropriate medical
services to women.
In many countries, especially in developing countries, in particular the least developed countries, a decrease in public health spending and, in some
cases, structural adjustment, contribute to the deterioration of public health systems. In addition, privatization of health-care systems without
appropriate guarantees of universal access to affordable health care, further reduces health-care availability. This situation not only directly affects the
health of girls and women, but also places disproportionate responsibilities on women, whose multiple roles, including their roles within the family and
the community, are often not acknowledged; hence they do not receive the necessary social, psychological and economic support.
Women's right to the enjoyment of the highest standard of health must be secured throughout the whole life cycle in equality with men. Women are
affected by many of the same health conditions as men, but women experience them differently. The prevalence among women of poverty and
economic dependence, their experience of violence, negative attitudes towards women and girls, discrimination due to race and other forms of
discrimination, the limited power many women have over their sexual and reproductive lives and lack of influence in decision-making are social realities
which have an adverse impact on their health. Lack of food and inequitable distribution of food for girls and women in the household, inadequate access
to safe water, sanitation facilities and fuel supplies, particularly in rural and poor urban areas, and deficient
housing conditions, all overburden women
and their families and have a negative effect on their health. Good health is essential to leading a productive and fulfilling life, and the right of all women
to control all aspects of their health, in particular their own fertility, is basic to their empowerment.
Discrimination against girls, often resulting from son preference, in access to nutrition and health-care services endangers their current and future
health and well-being. Conditions that force girls into early marriage, pregnancy and child-bearing and subject them to harmful practices, such as female
genital mutilation, pose grave health risks. Adolescent girls need, but too often do not have, access to necessary health and nutrition services as they
mature. Counselling and access to sexual and reproductive health information and services for adolescents are still inadequate or lacking completely,
and a young woman's right to privacy, confidentiality, respect and informed consent is often not considered. Adolescent girls are both biologically and
psychosocially more vulnerable than boys to sexual abuse, violence and prostitution, and to the consequences of unprotected and premature sexual
relations. The trend towards early sexual experience, combined with a lack of information and services, increases the risk of unwanted and too early
pregnancy, HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases, as well as unsafe abortions. Early child-bearing continues to be an impediment to
improvements in the educational, economic and social status of women in all parts of the world. Overall, for young women early marriage and early
motherhood can severely curtail educational and employment opportunities and are likely to have a long-term, adverse impact on the quality of their
lives and the lives of their children. Young men are often not educated to respect women's self-determination and to share responsibility with women in
matters of sexuality and reproduction.
Reproductive health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in all matters
relating to the reproductive system and to its functions and processes. Reproductive health therefore implies that people are able to have a satisfying
and safe sex life and that they have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if, when and how often to do so. Implicit in this last condition
are the right of men and women to be informed and to have access to safe, effective, affordable and acceptable methods of family planning of their
choice, as well as other methods of their choice for regulation of fertility which are not against the law, and the right of access to appropriate health-care
services that will enable women to go safely through pregnancy and childbirth and provide couples with the best chance of having a healthy infant. In
line with the above definition of reproductive health, reproductive health care is defined as the constellation of methods, techniques and services that
contribute to reproductive health and well- being by preventing and solving reproductive health problems. It also includes sexual health, the purpose of
which is the enhancement of life and personal relations, and not merely counselling and care related to reproduction and sexually transmitted diseases.
Bearing in mind the above definition, reproductive rights embrace certain human rights that are already recognized in national laws, international
human rights documents and other consensus documents. These rights rest on the recognition of the basic right of all couples and individuals to decide
freely and responsibly the number, spacing and timing of their children and to have
the information and means to do so, and the right to attain the highest
standard of sexual and reproductive health. It also includes their right to make decisions concerning reproduction free of discrimination, coercion and
violence, as expressed in human rights documents. In the exercise of this right, they should take into account the needs of their living and future children
and their responsibilities towards the community. The promotion of the responsible exercise of these rights for all people should be the fundamental
basis for government- and community-supported policies and programmes in the area of reproductive health, including family planning. As part of their
commitment, full attention should be given to the promotion of mutually respectful and equitable gender relations and particularly to meeting the
educational and service needs of adolescents to enable them to deal in a positive and responsible way with their sexuality. Reproductive health eludes
many of the world's people because of such factors as: inadequate levels of knowledge about human sexuality and inappropriate or poor-quality
reproductive health information and services; the prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviour; discriminatory social practices; negative attitudes towards
women and girls; and the limited power many women and girls have over their sexual and reproductive lives. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable
because of their lack of information and access to relevant services in most countries. Older women and men have distinct reproductive and sexual
health issues which are often inadequately addressed.
The human rights of women include their right to have control over and decide freely and responsibly on matters related to their sexuality, including
sexual and reproductive health, free of coercion, discrimination and violence. Equal relationships between women and men in matters of sexual relations
and reproduction, including full respect for the integrity of the person, require mutual respect, consent and shared responsibility for sexual behaviour and
Further, women are subject to particular health risks due to inadequate responsiveness and lack of services to meet health needs related to sexuality
and reproduction. Complications related to pregnancy and childbirth are among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity of women of reproductive
age in many parts of the developing world. Similar problems exist to a certain degree in some countries with economies in transition. Unsafe abortions
threaten the lives of a large number of women, representing a grave public health problem as it is primarily the poorest and youngest who take the
highest risk. Most of these deaths, health problems and injuries are preventable through improved access to adequate health-care services, including
safe and effective family planning methods and emergency obstetric care, recognizing the right of women and men to be informed and to have access to
safe, effective, affordable and acceptable methods of family planning of their choice, as well as other methods of their choice for regulation of fertility
which are not against the law, and the right of access to appropriate health-care services that will enable women to go safely through pregnancy and
childbirth and provide couples with the best chance of having a healthy infant. These problems and means should be addressed on the basis of the
report of the International Conference on Population and Development, with particular reference to relevant paragraphs of the Programme of Action of
the Conference. 13/ In most countries, the neglect of women's reproductive rights severely limits their opportunities in public and
private life, including
opportunities for education and economic and political empowerment. The ability of women to control their own fertility forms an important basis for
the enjoyment of other rights. Shared responsibility between women and men in matters related to sexual and reproductive behaviour is also essential to
improving women's health.
HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, the transmission of which is sometimes a consequence of sexual violence, are having a
devastating effect on women's health, particularly the health of adolescent girls and young women. They often do not have the power to insist on safe
and responsible sex practices and have little access to information and services for prevention and treatment. Women, who represent half of all adults
newly infected with HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, have emphasized that social vulnerability and the unequal power relationships
between women and men are obstacles to safe sex, in their efforts to control the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. The consequences of
HIV/AIDS reach beyond women's health to their role as mothers and caregivers and their contribution to the economic support of their families. The
social, developmental and health consequences of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases need to be seen from a gender perspective.
Sexual and gender-based violence, including physical and psychological abuse, trafficking in women and girls, and other forms of abuse and sexual
exploitation place girls and women at high risk of physical and mental trauma, disease and unwanted pregnancy. Such situations often deter women
from using health and other services.
Mental disorders related to marginalization, powerlessness and poverty, along with overwork and stress and the growing incidence of domestic
violence as well as substance abuse, are among other health issues of growing concern to women. Women throughout the world, especially young
women, are increasing their use of tobacco with serious effects on their health and that of their children. Occupational health issues are also growing in
importance, as a large number of women work in low-paid jobs in either the formal or the informal labour market under tedious and unhealthy
conditions, and the number is rising. Cancers of the breast and cervix and other cancers of the reproductive system, as well as infertility affect growing
numbers of women and may be preventable, or curable, if detected early.
With the increase in life expectancy and the growing number of older women, their health concerns require particular attention. The long-term
health prospects of women are influenced by changes at menopause, which, in combination with life-long conditions and other factors, such as poor
nutrition and lack of physical activity, may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. Other diseases of ageing and the
interrelationships of ageing and disability among women also need particular attention.
Women, like men, particularly in rural areas and poor urban areas, are increasingly exposed to environmental health hazards owing to
environmental catastrophes and degradation. Women have a different susceptibility to various environmental hazards, contaminants and substances and
they suffer different consequences from exposure to them.
The quality of women's health care is often deficient in various ways, depending on local circumstances. Women are frequently not treated with
respect, nor are they guaranteed privacy and confidentiality, nor do they always receive full information about the options and services available.
Furthermore, in some countries, over- medicating of women's life events is common, leading to unnecessary surgical intervention and inappropriate
Statistical data on health are often not systematically collected, disaggregated and analysed by age, sex and socio-economic status and by
established demographic criteria used to serve the interests and solve the problems of subgroups, with particular emphasis on the vulnerable and
marginalized and other relevant variables. Recent and reliable data on the mortality and morbidity of women and conditions and diseases particularly
affecting women are not available in many countries. Relatively little is known about how social and economic factors affect the health of girls and
women of all ages, about the provision of health services to girls and women and the patterns of their use of such services, and about the value of
disease prevention and health promotion programmes for women. Subjects of importance to women's health have not been adequately researched and
women's health research often lacks funding. Medical research, on heart disease, for example, and epidemiological studies in many countries are often
based solely on men;
they are not gender specific. Clinical trials involving women to establish basic information about dosage, side-effects and effectiveness of drugs,
including contraceptives, are noticeably absent and do not always conform to ethical standards for research and testing. Many drug therapy protocols
and other medical treatments and interventions administered to women are based on research on men without any investigation and adjustment for
In addressing inequalities in health status and unequal access to and inadequate health-care services between women and men, Governments and
other actors should promote an active and visible policy of mainstreaming a gender perspective in all policies and programmes, so that, before decisions
are taken, an analysis is made of the effects for women and men,
Strategic objective C.1.
Increase women's access throughout the life cycle to appropriate, affordable and quality health care, information and related services
Actions to be taken
By Governments, in collaboration with non- governmental organizations and employers' and workers' organizations and with the support of international institutions:
Support and implement the commitments made in the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development, as established in the report of that Conference and the Copenhagen Declaration on Social Development and Programme of Action of the World Summit for Social Development 14/ and the obligations of States parties under the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and other relevant international agreements, to meet the health needs of girls and women of all ages;
Reaffirm the right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standards of physical and mental health, protect and promote the attainment of this right for women and girls and incorporate it in national legislation, for example; review existing legislation, including health legislation, as well as policies, where necessary, to reflect a commitment to women's health and to ensure that they meet the changing roles and responsibilities of women wherever they reside;
Design and implement, in cooperation with women and community-based organizations, gender-sensitive health programmes, including decentralized health services, that address the needs of women throughout their lives and take into account their multiple roles and responsibilities, the demands on their time, the special needs of rural women and women with disabilities and the diversity of women's needs arising from age and socio-economic and cultural differences, among others; include women, especially local and indigenous women, in the identification and planning of health-care priorities and programmes; and remove all barriers to women's health services and provide a broad range of health-care services;
Allow women access to social security systems in equality with men throughout the whole life cycle;
Provide more accessible, available and affordable primary health-care services of high quality, including sexual and reproductive health care, which includes family planning information and services, and giving particular attention to maternal and emergency obstetric care, as agreed in the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development;
Redesign health information, services and training for health workers so that they are gender-sensitive and reflect the user's perspectives with regard to interpersonal and communications skills and the user's right to privacy and confidentiality. These services, information and training should adopt a holistic approach;
Ensure that all health services and workers conform to human rights and to ethical, professional and gender-sensitive standards in the delivery of women's health services aimed at ensuring responsible, voluntary and informed consent. Encourage the development, implementation and dissemination of codes of ethics guided by existing international codes of medical ethics as well as ethical principles that govern other health professionals;
Take all appropriate measures to eliminate harmful, medically unnecessary or coercive medical interventions, as well as inappropriate medication and over-medication of women. All women should be fully informed of their options, including likely benefits and potential side-effects, by properly trained personnel;
Strengthen and reorient health services, particularly primary health care, in order to ensure universal access to quality health services for women and girls, reduce ill health and maternal morbidity and achieve world wide the agreed-upon goal of reducing maternal mortality by at least 50 per cent of the 1990 levels by the year 2000 and a further one half by the year 2015; ensure that the necessary services are available at each level of the health system; and make reproductive health care accessible, through the primary health-care system, to all individuals of appropriate ages as soon as possible and no later than the year 2015;
Recognize and deal with the health impact of unsafe abortion as a major public health concern, as agreed in paragraph 8.25 of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development;
Paragraph 8.25 of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development states: "In no case should abortion be promoted as a method of family planning. All Governments and relevant intergovernmental and non- governmental organizations are urged to strengthen their commitment to women's health, to deal with the health impact of unsafe abortion 15/ as a major public health concern and to reduce the recourse to abortion through expanded and improved family- planning services. Prevention of unwanted pregnancies must always be given the highest priority and every attempt should be made to eliminate the need for abortion. Women who have unwanted pregnancies should have ready access to reliable information and compassionate counselling. Any measures or changes related to abortion within the health system can only be determined at the national or local level according to the national legislative process. In circumstances where abortion is not against the law, such abortion should be safe. In all cases, women should have access to quality services for the management of complications arising from abortion. Post-abortion counselling, education and family-planning services should be offered promptly, which will also help to avoid repeat abortions." Consider reviewing laws containing punitive measures against women who have undergone illegal abortions;
Give particular attention to the needs of girls, especially the romotion of healthy behaviour, including physical activities; take specific measures for closing the gender gaps in morbidity and mortality where girls are disadvantaged, while achieving internationally approved goals for the reduction of infant and child mortality - specifically, by the year 2000, the reduction of mortality rates of infants and children under five years of age by one third of the 1990 level, or 50 to 70 per 1,000 live births, whichever is less; by the year 2015 an infant mortality rate below 35 per 1,000 live births and an under-five mortality rate below 45 per 1,000;
Ensure that girls have continuing access to necessary health and nutrition information and services as they mature, to facilitate a healthful transition from childhood to adulthood;
Develop information, programmes and services to assist women to understand and adapt to changes associated with ageing and to address and treat the health needs of older women, paying particular attention to those who are physically or psychologically dependent;
Ensure that girls and women of all ages with any form of disability receive supportive services;
Formulate special policies, design programmes and enact the legislation necessary to alleviate and eliminate environmental and occupational health hazards associated with work in the home, in the workplace and elsewhere with attention to pregnant and lactating women;
Integrate mental health services into primary health care systems or other appropriate levels, develop supportive programmes and train primary health workers to recognize and care for girls and women of all ages who have experienced any form of violence especially domesticviolence, sexual abuse or other abuse resulting from armed and non-armed conflict;
Promote public information on the benefits of breast-feeding; examine ways and means of implementing fully the WHO/UNICEF International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes, and enable mothers to breast-feed their infants by providing legal, economic, practical and emotional support;
Establish mechanisms to support and involve non- governmental organizations, particularly women's organizations, professional groups and other bodies working to improve the health of girls and women, in government policy-making, programme design, as appropriate, and implementation within the health sector and related sectors at all levels;
Support non-governmental organizations working on women's health and help develop networks aimed at improving coordination and collaboration between all sectors that affect health;
Rationalize drug procurement and ensure a reliable, continuous supply of high-quality pharmaceutical, contraceptive and other supplies and equipment, using the WHO Model List of Essential Drugs as a guide, and ensure the safety of drugs and devices through national regulatory drug approval processes;
Provide improved access to appropriate treatment and rehabilitation services for women substance abusers and their families;
Promote and ensure household and national food security, as appropriate, and implement programmes aimed at improving the nutritional status of all girls and women by implementing the commitments made in the Plan of Action on Nutrition of the International Conference on Nutrition, 16/ including a reduction world wide of severe and moderate malnutrition among children under the age of five by one half of 1990 levels by the year 2000, giving special attention to the gender gap in nutrition, and a reduction in iron deficiency anaemia in girls and women by one third of the 1990 levels by the year 2000;
Ensure the availability of and universal access to safe drinking water and sanitation and put in place effective public distribution systems as soon as possible;
Ensure full and equal access to health care infrastructure and services for indigenous women.
Strategic objective C.2.
Strengthen preventive programmes that promote women's health
Actions to be taken
By Governments, in cooperation with non-governmental organizations, the mass media, the private sector and relevant international organizations, including United Nations bodies, as appropriate:
Give priority to both formal and informal educational programmes that support and enable women to develop self-esteem, acquire knowledge, make decisions on and take responsibility for their own health, achieve mutual respect in matters concerning sexuality and fertility and educate men regarding the importance of women's health and well-being, placing special focus on programmes for both men and women that emphasize the elimination of harmful attitudes and practices, including female genital mutilation, son preference (which results in female infanticide and prenatal sex selection), early marriage, including child marriage, violence against women, sexual exploitation, sexual abuse, which at times is conducive to infection with HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, drug abuse, discrimination against girls and women in food allocation and other harmful attitudes and practices related to the life, health and well- being of women, and recognizing that some of these practices can be violations of human rights and ethical medical principles;
Pursue social, human development, education and employment policies to eliminate poverty among women in order to reduce their susceptibility to ill health and to improve their health;
Encourage men to share equally in child care and household work and to provide their share of financial support for their families, even if they do not live with them;
Reinforce laws, reform institutions and promote norms and practices that eliminate discrimination against women and encourage both women and men to take responsibility for their sexual and reproductive behaviour, ensure full respect for the integrity of the person, take action to ensure the conditions necessary for women to exercise their reproductive rights and eliminate coercive laws and practices;
Prepare and disseminate accessible information, through public health campaigns, the media, reliable counselling and the education system, designed to ensure that women and men, particularly young people, can acquire knowledge about their health, especially information on sexuality and reproduction, taking into account the rights of the child to access to information, privacy, confidentiality, respect and informed consent, as well as the responsibilities, rights and duties of parents and legal guardians to provide, in a manner consistent with the evolving capacities of the child, appropriate direction and guidance in the exercise by the child of the rights recognized in the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and in conformity with theConvention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. In all actions concerning children, the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration;
Create and support programmes in the educational system, in the workplace and in the community to make opportunities to participate in sport, physical activity and recreation available to girls and women of all ages on the same basis as they are made available to men and boys;
Recognize the specific needs of adolescents and implement specific appropriate programmes, such as education and information on sexual and reproductive health issues and on sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS, taking into account the rights of the child and the responsibilities, rights and duties of parents as stated in paragraph 108 (e);
Develop policies that reduce the disproportionate and increasing burden on women who have multiple roles within the family and the community by providing them with adequate support and programmes from health and social services;
Adopt regulations to ensure that the working conditions, including remuneration and promotion of women at all levels of the health system, are non- discriminatory and meet fair and professional standards to enable them to work effectively;
Ensure that health and nutritional information and training form an integral part of all adult literacy programmes and school curricula from the primary level;
Develop and undertake media campaigns and information and educational programmes that inform women and girls of the health and related risks of substance abuse and addiction and pursue strategies and programmes that discourage substance abuse and addiction and promote rehabilitation and recovery;
Devise and implement comprehensive and coherent programmes for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis, a condition that predominantly affects women;
Establish and/or strengthen programmes and services, including media campaigns, that address the prevention, early detection and treatment of breast, cervical and other cancers of the reproductive system;
Reduce environmental hazards that pose a growing threat to health, especially in poor regions and communities; apply a precautionary approach, as agreed to in the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, adopted by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, 17/ and include reporting on women's health risks related to the environment in monitoring the implementation of Agenda 21;
Create awareness among women, health professionals, policy makers and the general public about the serious but preventable health hazards stemming from tobacco consumption and the need for regulatory and education measures to reduce smoking as important health promotion and disease prevention activities;
Ensure that medical school curricula and other health care training include gender-sensitive, comprehensive and mandatory courses on women's health;
Adopt specific preventive measures to protect women, youth and children from any abuse - sexual abuse, exploitation, trafficking and violence, for example - including the formulation and enforcement of laws, and provide legal protection and medical and other assistance.
Strategic objective C.3.
Undertake gender-sensitive initiatives that address sexually transmitted diseases, HIV/AIDS, and sexual and reproductive health issues
Actions to be taken
By Governments, international bodies including relevant United Nations organizations, bilateral and multilateral donors and non-governmental organizations:
Ensure the involvement of women, especially those infected with HIV/AIDS or other sexually transmitted diseases or affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, in all decision-making relating to the development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes on HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases;
Review and amend laws and combat practices, as appropriate, that may contribute to women's susceptibility to HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases, including enacting legislation against those socio-cultural practices that contribute to it, and implement legislation, policies and practices to protect women, adolescents and young girls from discrimination related to HIV/AIDS;
Encourage all sectors of society, including the public sector, as well as international organizations, to develop compassionate and supportive, non-discriminatory HIV/AIDS-related policies and practices that protect the rights of infected individuals;
Recognize the extent of the HIV/AIDS pandemic in their countries, taking particularly into account its impact on women, with a view to ensuring that infected women not suffer stigmatization and discrimination including during travel;
Develop gender-sensitive multisectoral programmes and strategies to end social subordination of women and girls and to ensure their social and economic empowerment and equality; and facilitate promotion of programmes to educate and enable men to assume their responsibilities to prevent HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases;
Facilitate the development of community strategies that will protect women of all ages from HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases, provide care and support to infected girls, women and their families and mobilize all parts of the community in response to the HIV/AIDS pandemic to exert pressure on all responsible authorities to respond in a timely, effective, sustainable and gender-sensitive manner;
Support and strengthen national capacity to create and improve gender-sensitive policies and programmes on HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, including the provision of resources and facilities to women who find themselves the principal caregivers or economic support for those infected with HIV/AIDS or affected by the pandemic, and the survivors, particularly children and older persons;
Provide workshops and specialized education and training to parents, decision makers and opinion leaders at all levels of the community, including religious and traditional authorities, on prevention of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, and their repercussions on both women and men of all ages;
Give all women and health workers all relevant information and education about sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS and pregnancy and the implications for the baby, including breast-feeding;
Assist women and their formal and informal organizations to establish and expand effective peer education and outreach programmes and to participate in the design, implementation and monitoring of these programmes;
Give full attention to the promotion of mutually respectful and equitable gender relations and, in particular, to meeting the educational and service needs of adolescents to enable them to deal in a positive and responsible way with their sexuality;
Design specific programmes for men of all ages and male adolescents, recognizing the parental roles referred to in paragraph 108 (e), aimed at providing complete and accurate information on safe and responsible sexual and reproductive behaviour, including voluntary, appropriate and effective male methods for the prevention of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases through, inter alia, abstinence and condom use;
Ensure the provision, through the primary health care system, of universal access of couples and individuals to appropriate and affordable preventive services with respect to sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS, and expand the provision of counsellingand voluntary and confidential diagnostic and treatment services for women; ensure that high- quality condoms as well as drugs for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases are, where possible, supplied and distributed to health services;
Support programmes which acknowledge that the higher risk among women of contracting HIV is linked to high-risk behaviour, including intravenous substance use and substance-influenced unprotected and irresponsible sexual behaviour, and take appropriate preventive measures;
Support and expedite action-oriented research on affordable methods, controlled by women, to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases, on strategies empowering women to protect themselves from sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS, and on methods of care, support and treatment of women, ensuring their involvement in all aspects of such research;
Support and initiate research which addresses women's needs and situations, including research on HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases in women, on women-controlled methods of protection, such as non-spermicidal microbicides, and on male and female risk-taking attitudes and practices.
Strategic objective C.4.
Promote research and disseminate information on women's health
Actions to be taken
By Governments, the United Nations system, health professions, research institutions, non-governmental organizations, donors, pharmaceutical industries and the mass media, as appropriate:
Train researchers and introduce systems that allow for the use of data collected, analysed and disaggregated by, among other factors, sex and age, other established demographic criteria and socio- economic variables, in policy-making, as appropriate, planning, monitoring and evaluation;
Promote gender-sensitive and women-centred health research, treatment and technology and link traditional and indigenous knowledge with modern medicine, making information available to women to enable them to make informed and responsible decisions;
Increase the number of women in leadership positions in the health professions, including researchers and scientists, to achieve equality at the earliest possible date;
Increase financial and other support from all sources for preventive, appropriate biomedical, behavioural, epidemiological and health service research on women's health issues and for research on thesocial, economic and political causes of women's health problems, and their consequences, including the impact of gender and age inequalities, especially with respect to chronic and non- communicable diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and conditions, cancers, reproductive tract infections and injuries, HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, domestic violence, occupational health, disabilities, environmentally related health problems, tropical diseases and health aspects of ageing;
Inform women about the factors which increase the risks of developing cancers and infections of the reproductive tract, so that they can make informed decisions about their health;
Support and fund social, economic, political and cultural research on how gender-based inequalities affect women's health, including etiology, epidemiology, provision and utilization of services and eventual outcome of treatment;
Support health service systems and operations research to strengthen access and improve the quality of service delivery, to ensure appropriate support for women as health-care providers and to examine patterns with respect to the provision of health services to women and use of such services by women;
Provide financial and institutional support for research on safe, effective, affordable and acceptable methods and technologies for the reproductive and sexual health of women and men, including more safe, effective, affordable and acceptable methods for the regulation of fertility, including natural family planning for both sexes, methods to protect against HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases and simple and inexpensive methods of diagnosing such diseases, among others. This research needs to be guided at all stages by users and from the perspective of gender, particularly the perspective of women, and should be carried out in strict conformity with internationally accepted legal, ethical, medical and scientific standards for biomedical research;
Since unsafe abortion 15/ is a major threat to the health and life of women, research to understand and better address the determinants and consequences of induced abortion, including its effects on subsequent fertility, reproductive and mental health and contraceptive practice, should be promoted, as well as research on treatment of complications of abortions and post-abortion care;
Acknowledge and encourage beneficial traditional health care, especially that practised by indigenous women, with a view to preserving and incorporating the value of traditional health care in the provision of health services, and support research directed towards achieving this aim;
Develop mechanisms to evaluate and disseminate available data and research findings to researchers, policy makers, health professionals and women's groups, among others;
Monitor human genome and related genetic research from the perspective of women's health and disseminate information and results of studies conducted in accordance with accepted ethical standards.
Strategic objective C.5.
Increase resources and monitor follow-up for women's health
Actions to be taken
By Governments at all levels, and where appropriate, in cooperation with non-governmental organizations, especially women's and youth organizations:
Increase budgetary allocations for primary health care and social services, with adequate support for secondary and tertiary levels, and give special attention to the reproductive and sexual health of girls and women; priority should be given to health programmes in rural and poor urban areas;
Develop innovative approaches to funding health services through promoting community participation and local financing; increase, where necessary, budgetary allocations for community health centres and community-based programmes and services that address women's specific health needs;
Develop local health services, promoting the incorporation of gender-sensitive community-based participation and self-care and specially designed preventive health programmes;
Develop goals and time-frames, where appropriate, for improving women's health and for planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating programmes, based on gender-impact assessments using qualitative and quantitative data disaggregated by sex, age, other established demographic criteria and socio- economic variables;
Establish, as appropriate, ministerial and interministerial mechanisms for monitoring the implementation of women's health policy and programme reforms and establish, as appropriate, high-level focal points in national planning authorities responsible for monitoring to ensure that women's health concerns are mainstreamed in all relevant government agencies and programmes.
By Governments, the United Nations and its specialized agencies, international financial institutions, bilateral donors and the private sector, as appropriate:
Formulate policies favourable to investment in women's health and, where appropriate, increase allocations for such investment;
Provide appropriate material, financial and logistical assistance to youth non-governmental organizations in order to strengthen them to address youth concerns in the area of health including sexual and reproductive health;
Give higher priority to women's health and develop mechanisms for coordinating and implementing the health objectives of the Platform for Action and relevant international agreements to ensure progress.
D. Violence against women
Violence against women is an obstacle to the achievement of the objectives of equality, development and peace. Violence against women both violates and impairs or nullifies the enjoyment by women of their human rights and fundamental freedoms. The long-standing failure to protect and promote those rights and freedoms in the case of violence against women is a matter of concern to all States and should be addressed. Knowledge about its causes and consequences, as well as its incidence and measures to combat it, have been greatly expanded since the Nairobi Conference. In all societies, to a greater or lesser degree, women and girls are subjected to physical, sexual and psychological abuse that cuts across lines of income, class and culture. The low social and economic status of women can be both a cause and a consequence of violence against women.
The term "violence against women" means any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life. Accordingly, violence against women encompasses but is not limited to the following:
Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family, including battering, sexual abuse of female children in the household, dowry-related violence, marital rape, female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, non-spousal violence and violence related to exploitation;
Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring within the general community, including rape, sexual abuse, sexual harassment and intimidation at work, in educational institutions and elsewhere, trafficking in women and forced prostitution;
Physical, sexual and psychological violence perpetrated or condoned by the State, wherever it occurs.
Other acts of violence against women include violation of the human rights of women in situations of armed conflict, in particular murder,
systematic rape, sexual slavery and forced pregnancy.
Acts of violence against women also include forced sterilization and forced abortion, coercive/forced use of contraceptives, prenatal sex
selection and female infanticide.
Some groups of women, such as women belonging to minority groups, indigenous women, refugee women, women migrants, including women
migrant workers, women in poverty living in rural or remote communities, destitute women, women in institutions or in detention, female children,
women with disabilities, elderly women, displaced women, repatriated women, women living in poverty and women in situations of armed conflict,
foreign occupation, wars of aggression, civil wars, terrorism, including hostage-taking, are also particularly vulnerable to violence.
Acts or threats of violence, whether occurring within the home or in the community, or perpetrated or condoned by the State, instil fear and
insecurity in women's lives and are obstacles to the achievement of equality and for development and peace. The fear of violence, including harassment,
is a permanent constraint on the mobility of women and limits their access to resources and basic activities. High social, health and economic costs to
the individual and society are associated with violence against women. Violence against women is one of the crucial social mechanisms by which
women are forced into a subordinate position compared with men. In many cases, violence against women and girls occurs in the family or within the
home, where violence is often tolerated. The neglect, physical and sexual abuse, and rape of girl children and women by family members and other
members of the household, as well as incidences of spousal and non-spousal abuse, often go unreported and are thus difficult to detect. Even when
such violence is reported, there is often a failure to protect victims or punish perpetrators.
Violence against women is a manifestation of the historically unequal power relations between men and women, which have led to domination over
and discrimination against women by men and to the prevention of women's full
advancement. Violence against women throughout the life cycle derives
essentially from cultural patterns, in particular the harmful effects of certain traditional or customary practices and all acts of extremism linked to race,
sex, language or religion that perpetuate the lower status accorded to women in the family, the workplace, the community and society. Violence against
women is exacerbated by social pressures, notably the shame of denouncing certain acts that have been perpetrated against women; women's lack of
access to legal information, aid or protection; the lack of laws that effectively prohibit violence against women; failure to reform existing laws;
inadequate efforts on the part of public authorities to promote awareness of and to enforce existing laws; and the absence of educational and other
means to address the causes and consequences of violence. Images in the media of violence against women, in particular those that depict rape or
sexual slavery as well as the use of women and girls as sex objects, including pornography, factors contributing to the continued prevalence of such
violence, adversely influencing the community at large, in particular children and young people.
Developing a holistic and multidisciplinary approach to the challenging task of promoting families, communities and States that are free of violence
against women is necessary and achievable. Equality, partnership between women and men and respect for human dignity must permeate all stages of
the socialization process. Educational systems should promote self-respect, mutual respect, and cooperation between women and men.
The absence of adequate gender-disaggregated data and statistics on the incidence of violence makes the elaboration of programmes and
monitoring of changes difficult. Lack of or inadequate documentation and research on domestic violence, sexual harassment and violence against
women and girls in private and in public, including the workplace, impede efforts to design specific intervention strategies. Experience in a number of
countries shows that women and men can be mobilized to overcome violence in all its forms and that effective public measures can be taken to address
both the causes and theconsequences of violence. Men's groups mobilizing against gender violence are necessary allies for change.
Women may be vulnerable to violence perpetrated by persons in positions of authority in both conflict and non- conflict situations. Training of all
officials in humanitarian and human rights law and the punishment of perpetrators of violent acts against women would help to ensure that such violence
does not take place at the hands of public officials in whom women should be able to place trust, including police and prison officials and security
The effective suppression of trafficking in women and girls for the sex trade is a matter of pressing international concern. Implementation of the
1949 Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others, 18/ as well as other relevant
instruments, needs to be reviewed and strengthened. The use of women in international prostitution and trafficking networks has become a major focus
of international organized crime. The Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on violence against women, who has explored these acts
as an additional cause of the violation of the human rights and fundamental freedoms of women and girls, is invited to address, within her mandate and
as a matter of urgency, the issue of international trafficking for the purposes of the sex trade, as well as the issues of forced prostitution, rape, sexual
abuse and sex tourism. Women and girls who are victims of this international trade are at an increased risk of further violence, as well as unwanted
pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection, including infection with HIV/AIDS.
In addressing violence against women, Governments and other actors should promote an active and visible policy of mainstreaming a gender perspective in all policies and programmes so that before decisions are taken an analysis may be made of their effects on women and men, respectively.
Strategic objective D.1.
Take integrated measures to prevent and eliminate violence against women
Actions to be taken
Condemn violence against women and refrain from invoking any custom, tradition or religious consideration to avoid their obligations with respect to its elimination as set out in the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women;
Refrain from engaging in violence against women and exercise due diligence to prevent, investigate and, in accordance with national legislation, punish acts of violence against women, whether those acts are perpetrated by the State or by private persons;
Enact and/or reinforce penal, civil, labour and administrative sanctions in domestic legislation to punish and redress the wrongs done to women and girls who are subjected to any form of violence, whether in the home, the workplace, the community or society;
Adopt and/or implement and periodically review and analyse legislation to ensure its effectiveness in eliminating violence against women, emphasizing the prevention of violence and the prosecution of offenders; take measures to ensure the protection of women subjected to violence, access to just and effective remedies, including compensation and indemnification and healing of victims, and rehabilitation of perpetrators;
Work actively to ratify and/or implement international human rights norms and instruments as they relate to violence against women, including those contained in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 19/ the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 12/ the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 12/ and the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment; 20/
Implement the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, taking into account general recommendation 19 adopted by the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, at its eleventh session; 21/
Promote an active and visible policy of mainstreaming a gender perspective in all policies and programmes related to violence against women and actively encourage, support and implement measures and programmes aimed at increasing the knowledge and understanding of the causes, consequences and mechanisms of violence against women among those responsible for implementing these policies, such as law enforcement officers, police personnel and judicial, medical and social workers, as well as those who deal with minority, migration and refugee issues, and develop strategies to ensure that the revictimization of women victims of violence does not occur because of gender-insensitive laws or judicial or enforcement practices;
Provide women who are subjected to violence with access to the mechanisms of justice and, as provided for by national legislation, to just and effective remedies for the harm they have suffered and inform women of their rights in seeking redress through such mechanisms;
Enact and enforce legislation against the perpetrators of practices and acts of violence against women, such as female genital mutilation, prenatal sex selection, infanticide and dowry-related violence and give vigorous support to the efforts of non-governmental and community organizations to eliminate such practices;
Formulate and implement, at all appropriate levels, plans of action to eliminate violence against women;
Adopt all appropriate measures, especially in the field of education, to modify the social and cultural patterns of conduct of men and women, and to eliminate prejudices, customary practices and all other practices based on the idea of the inferiority or superiority of either of the sexes and on stereotyped roles for men and women;
Create or strengthen institutional mechanisms so that women and girls can report acts of violence against them in a safe and confidential environment, free from the fear of penalties or retaliation, and file charges;
Ensure that women with disabilities have access to information and services in the field of violence against women;
Create, improve or develop as appropriate, and fund the training programmes for judicial, legal, medical, social, educational and police and immigrant personnel, in order to avoid the abuse of power leading to violence against women and sensitize such personnel to the nature of gender-based acts and threats of violence so that fair treatment of female victims can be assured;
Adopt laws, where necessary, and reinforce existing laws that punish police, security forces or any other agents of the State who engage in acts of violence against women in the course of the performance of their duties, review existing legislation and take effective measures against the perpetrators of such violence;
Allocate adequate resources within the government budget and mobilize community resources for activities related to the elimination of violence against women, including resources for the implementation of plans of action at all appropriate levels;
Include in reports submitted in accordance with the provisions of relevant United Nations human rights instruments, information pertaining to violence against women and measures taken to implement the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women;
Cooperate with and assist the Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on violence against women in the performance of her mandate and furnish all information requested; cooperate also with other competent mechanisms, such as the Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on torture and the Special Rapporteur ofthe Commission on Human Rights on summary, extrajudiciary and arbitrary executions, in relation to violence against women;
Recommend that the Commission on Human Rights renew the mandate of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women when her term ends in 1997 and, if warranted, to update and strengthen it.
By Governments, including local governments, and community organizations, non-governmental organizations, educational institutions, the public and private sectors, particularly enterprises, and the mass media, as appropriate:
Provide well-funded shelters and relief support for girls and women subjected to violence, as well as medical, psychological and other counselling services and free or low-cost legal aid, where it is needed, as well as appropriate assistance to enable them to find a means of subsistence;
Establish linguistically and culturally accessible services for migrant women and girls, including women migrant workers, who are victims of gender-based violence;
Recognize the vulnerability to violence and other forms of abuse of women migrants, including women migrant workers, whose legal status in the host country depends on employers who may exploit their situation;
Support initiatives of women's organizations and non- governmental organizations all over the world to raise awareness on the issue of violence against women and to contribute to its elimination;
Organize, support and fund community-based education and training campaigns to raise awareness about violence against women as a violation of women's enjoyment of their human rights and mobilize local communities to use appropriate gender-sensitive traditional and innovative methods of conflict resolution;
Recognize, support and promote the fundamental role of intermediate institutions, such as primary-health-care centres, family-planning centres, existing school health services, mother and baby protection services, centres for migrant families and so forth in the field of information and education related to abuse;
Organize and fund information campaigns, educational and training programmes in order to sensitize girls and boys and women and men to the personal and social detrimental effects of violence in the family, community and society; teach them how to communicate without violence; promote training for victims and potential victims so that they can protect themselves and others against such violence;
Disseminate information on the assistance available to women and families who are victims of violence;
Provide, fund and encourage counselling and rehabilitation programmes for the perpetrators of violence, and promote research to further efforts concerning such counselling and rehabilitation so as to prevent the recurrence of such violence;
Raise awareness of the responsibility of the media in promoting non-stereotyped images of women and men, as well as in eliminating patterns of media presentation that generate violence, and encourage those responsible for media content to establish professional guidelines and codes of conduct, consistent with freedom of expression; and also raise awareness of the important role of the media in informing and educate people about the causes and effects of violence against women and in stimulating public debate on the topic.
By Governments, employers, trade unions, community and youth organizations and non-governmental organizations, as appropriate:
Develop programmes and procedures to eliminate sexual harassment and other forms of violence against women in all educational institutions, workplaces and elsewhere;
Develop programmes and procedures to educate and raise awareness of acts of violence against women that constitute a crime and a violation of the human rights of women;
Develop counselling, healing and support programmes for girls, adolescents and young women who have been or are involved in abusive relationships, particularly those who live in homes or institutions where abuse occurs;
Take special measures to eliminate violence against women, particularly those in vulnerable situations, such as young women, refugee, displaced and internally displaced women, women with disabilities and women migrant workers, including enforcing any existing legislation and developing, as appropriate, new legislation for women migrant workers in both sending and receiving countries.
By the Secretary-General of the United Nations: Provide the Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on violence against women
with all necessary assistance, in particular staff and resources required to perform all mandated functions, especially in carrying out and following up on
missions undertaken either separately or jointly with other special rapporteurs and working groups, and adequate assistance for periodic consultations
with the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women and all treaty bodies.
By Governments, international organizations and non-governmental organizations: Encourage the dissemination and implementation of the
UNHCR Guidelines on the Protection of Refugee Women and the UNHCR Guidelines on the Prevention of and Response to Sexual Violence against
Refugees. Strategic objective D.2. Study the causes and consequences of violence against women and the effectiveness of preventive measures Actions
to be taken
By Governments, regional organizations, the United Nations, other international organizations, research institutions, women's and youth organizations and non-governmental organizations, as appropriate:
Promote research, collect data and compile statistics, especially concerning domestic violence relating to the prevalence of different forms of violence against women and encourage research into the causes, nature, seriousness and consequences of violence against women and the effectiveness of measures implemented to prevent and redress violence against women;
Disseminate findings of research and studies widely;
Support and initiate research on the impact of violence, such as rape, on women and girl children, and make the resulting information and statistics available to the public;
Encourage the media to examine the impact of gender role stereotypes, including those perpetuated by commercial advertisements which foster gender-based violence and inequalities, and how they are transmitted during the life cycle and take measures to eliminate these negative images with a view to promoting a violence-free society.
Strategic objective D.3.
Eliminate trafficking in women and assist victims of violence due to prostitution and trafficking
Actions to be taken
By Governments of countries of origin, transit and destination, regional and international organizations, as appropriate:
Consider the ratification and enforcement of international conventions on trafficking in persons and on slavery;
Take appropriate measures to address the root factors, including external factors, that encourage trafficking in women and girls for prostitution and other forms of commercialized sex, forced marriages and forced labour in order to eliminate trafficking in women, including by strengthening existing legislation with a view to providing better protection of the rights of women and girls and to punishing the perpetrators, through both criminal and civil measures;
Step up cooperation and concerted action by all relevant law enforcement authorities and institutions with a view to dismantling national, regional and international networks in trafficking;
Allocate resources to provide comprehensive programmes designed to heal and rehabilitate into society victims of trafficking including through job training, legal assistance and confidential health care and take measures to cooperate with non-governmental organizations to provide for the social, medical and psychological care of the victims of trafficking;
Develop educational and training programmes and policies and consider enacting legislation aimed at preventing sex tourism and trafficking, giving special emphasis to the protection of young women and children.